21 Ene A Contract or Agreement Is Called
Each Party must be a «well-informed person» with legal capacity. The parties may be natural persons («natural persons») or legal persons («companies»). An agreement is reached when an «offer» is accepted. The parties must intend to be legally bound; and to be valid, the agreement must have both an appropriate «form» and a lawful purpose. In England (and in jurisdictions that apply the principles of English treaties), the parties must also exchange «considerations» to create «reciprocity of obligation,» as in Simpkins v Countries.  If the agreement does not meet the legal requirements to be considered a valid contract, the «contractual agreement» will not be enforced by law and the infringing party will not have to compensate the non-infringing party. That is, the plaintiff (non-offending party) in a contractual dispute suing the infringing party can only receive expected damages if he can prove that the alleged contractual agreement actually existed and was a valid and enforceable contract. In this case, the expected damages will be rewarded, which attempts to make the non-infringing party complete by awarding the amount of money that the party would have earned if there had been no breach of the agreement, plus any reasonably foreseeable consequential damages incurred as a result of the breach. However, it is important to note that there are no punitive damages for contractual remedies and that the non-infringing party cannot be awarded more than is expected (monetary value of the contract if it has been fully performed). An agreement is an expansive concept that includes any agreement or understanding between two or more parties about their rights and obligations to each other.
These informal agreements often take the form of «gentlemen`s agreements», where compliance with the terms of the agreement depends more on the honour of the parties concerned than on external means of implementation. Contracts also don`t need to be written – oral contracts can still be legally binding as long as they contain all the elements of a contract. For example, if you lend money to your brother so he can buy a new car and agree that he will pay it back in six months, you can have a verbal contract. If the contract contains a valid arbitration clause, the aggrieved party must file a request for arbitration in accordance with the procedures set out in the clause before filing a claim. Many contracts stipulate that all disputes arising from them are resolved by arbitration rather than being heard by the courts. For more information, check out our complete guide to writing a contract. == References ===== External links ===Email exchanges have become binding contracts. New York courts ruled in 2016 that the principles of real estate contracts also apply to electronic communications and electronic signatures as long as «their content and subscription meet all the requirements of applicable law» and under the Electronic Signatures and Records Act (ESRA).   Conditions may be implied by factual circumstances or the conduct of the parties. In BP Refinery (Westernport) Pty Ltd v. Shire of Hastings, the British Privy Council proposed a five-step test on behalf of Australia to determine situations in which the facts of a case could involve conditions. The classic tests were the «Business Efficacy Test» and the «Offficious Bystander Test».
The «business efficacy test» first proposed in The Moorcock  involves the minimum conditions necessary to ensure the commercial viability of the contract. According to the Offficious Bystander Test (named Southern Foundries (1926) Ltd v Shirlaw , but which in fact originated in Reigate v. Union Manufacturing Co (Ramsbottom) Ltd ), a term can only be implied if an «official bystander» listening to the contract negotiations suggested that the clause be included, the parties would immediately agree. The difference between these tests is debatable. On the other hand, domestic and social agreements such as those between children and parents are generally unenforceable on the basis of public order. For example, in the English case Balfour v Balfour, a husband agreed to give his wife £30 a month while away from home, but the court refused to enforce the agreement when the husband stopped paying. In contrast, in Merritt v. Merritt, the court enforced an agreement between a separated couple because the circumstances suggested that their agreement must have legal consequences.
For example, offer to let your friends stay in your house while they are in town. This is an agreement because there is no exchange of consideration for the use of your home, and there are no written terms or conditions for them for compliance. Your friends can`t sue you for changing their mind and charging them for a hotel. The main advantage of an agreement that does not meet the criteria of a contract is that it is inherently informal. If the parties have a long-standing relationship and share a significant level of trust, the use of a non-contractual agreement can save time and allow for greater flexibility in the performance of agreed obligations. Agreements that do not contain all the necessary elements of the contract may also be more practical in situations where drafting a contract would prove prohibitive for the parties involved. Contracts arise when an obligation is concluded on the basis of a promise made by one of the parties. In order to be legally binding as a contract, a promise must be exchanged for appropriate consideration.
There are two different theories or definitions of consideration: the bargain consideration theory and the benefit-harm consideration theory. Generally, courts do not assess the «reasonableness» of the consideration, provided that the consideration is classified as «sufficient», with relevance defined as meeting the test of the law, while «reasonableness» is fairness or subjective equivalence. For example, the agreement to sell a car for a penny may constitute a binding contract (however, if the transaction is an attempt to avoid taxes, it will be treated by the tax administration as if a market price had been paid).  The parties may do so for tax reasons and attempt to disguise donation transactions as contracts. This is called the pepper rule, but in some jurisdictions, the penny may represent a legally inadequate nominal consideration. .